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The Modern Educational Modalities for Contemporary Teaching and Learning

Dange, J. K.

Associate Professor, Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Education, Kuvempu University, Shivamogga. Email:

Usha R. G.

Assistant Professor, The Institute of Education, Onkarmal Somani College of Education, Mysuru. Email:

Abstract: Modern education system gives more skills and job opportunities to students. As of present situations, teaching and learning process are going through online mode because of Covid-19. For teaching through online mode, step learning experiences model gives the brief description for teaching and learning aid for teachers. Coming days Covid-19 may take years together to get rid of fully, so going to schools and colleges will become tough. In this regard studying through online mode will be necessary. This articlediscusses the understanding of the usage of modern education modalities, by giving the description of step learning experiences model for teaching and learning and the different platforms which are to be used for online teachingare also discussed.

Keywords: blended learning, e-learning, flipped classroom, mobile learning.

Introduction: The Education system of India is one of the unique ways of its kind in the world, more than 102.8 million people come under this education system. In our country, we come across the following level of education like, elementary education, secondary education and higher education. Education is the only tool to change everything in society. In present scenario, because of Covid-19 the education is not reaching for all pupils for several external factors. The pandemic has significantly disrupted the education sector as well, which is a critical determinant of a country’s economic future (Goyal, 2020).

Academic activities such as conducting annual exams, evaluations, results, admission process for the next academic year, planning of budget etc., are still pending in the educational institutions. The structure of schooling and learning, including teaching and assessment methodologies, was the first to be affected by these closures. Only a handful of private institutions could adopt online teaching methods. The low-income private and government school counterparts, on the other hand, have completely shut down for not having access to online learning techniques. The students, in addition to the missed opportunities for learning, no longer have access tohealthy meals during this time and are

edagogy is any effective behaviour or activities designed to impart knowledge, it is used in the process of teaching and learning, and has an association with students’ learning and outcomes. Of particular interest to many e-learning researchers have been those pedagogies associated with social inter-actions and online discussions (Henri, 1997; Stephenson, 2002; Alexander &Boud, 2001). Online discussions are facilitated by Computer Conferencing, a web-based communication system that supports asynchronous, textual interaction between two or more persons. Online discussions combine input from tutors and students, and provide opportunities to examine their online interactions, which have been facilitated by the technology. Consequently, a great emphasis was placed on the written communications as they might reveal evidence of students’ participation, contribution, communication and work that shows knowledge application, and criticality among other indicators of meaningful and effective learning. Moreover, tutors’ input could be monitored for facilitation, feedback and other evidence of effective teaching.

subject to economic and social stress (Choudhary, 2020). Instead of the teacher being the only source of help in a classroom, students can access web sites, online tutorials, e-learning, PPT presentations, e--mail and more to assist them to others to gaining more knowledge (Dange & Usha, 2020). The pandemic has significantly affected the field of education as well, which is a critical determinant of a country’s economic future. Now a daystechnology plays very important rolefor teaching learning purpose. The effective teachers recognize the need to provoke a positive response in students and do so in more interactive, communicative ways, so that students engage, understand, participate and learn throughout the world (Dange & Usha, 2020). A large number of Indian students second only to China enroll in universities abroad, especially in countries worst affected by the pandemic, the US, UK, Australia and China. Many such students have now been barred from leaving these countries. If this situation persists, in the long run, a decline in the demand for international higher education is expected (Luthra & Mackenzie, 2020).

An effective means to reach all aspirants is modality basededucation, this consists of organizing around the different modalities to accommodate the needs of all learners. Most students learn with all their modalities, but some students may have unusual strengths and weaknesses in particular modalities. For example, students strong in the visual modality will be frustrated or confused with just verbal explanations (Raj, 2009).

Learning modalities are the sensory channels or pathways through which individuals give, receive and store information. Perception, memory and sensation comprise the concept of modality. The modalities or senses include visual, auditory, tactile/kinaesthetic, smell and taste. Researchers including Reiff, Eisler, Barbe and Stronck have concluded that in a classroom, the students would be approximately: 30% of the students will remember most of what is said in a classroom lecture and another 30% will remember primarily what is seen (Raj, 2009).

Figure.1. Learning Modalities Model

There are many experiences and audiovisual aids which are missing in Dale’s cone of experience and to be included by making a new model of experiences, i.e, Step Learning Experiences model (Dange, 2015).

The base of the step learning experiences model is direct and purposeful experience which is always preferable for any new learner and any kind of learning concept and gives first-hand experience in turn leads to the permanent learning (Expected). At the top of the cone is verbal or text these are the least effective ways to introduce new content to students. The step learning experience model includes 17 different experiences (Dange, 2015).

Figure-2. Steps Learning Experiences model by Jagannath K Dange

The above experiences can be utilised by the teachers by selecting sensibly based on the objectives to be achieved, students’ ability, expectations of the content and availability of resources etc., and to be used effectively in their teaching process. The following modalities would be ideal to use the above listed experiences by the teachers in their teaching and related processes.

The Future Educational Modalities Using in Education System

1. E-learning: It consists of learning through digital resources. In this modality, students usesabove step model such as still pictures, motion pictures, mobiles, computers and tablets in order to learn and nowadaysit is inevitably linked to the online resources. There are several e-learning modalities such as complete online training, blended learning. Especially this is more important for those students with special needs, since it allows them to involve in the classroom and reinforces outside of class what they have seen in the lesson, by using a variety of interesting content that helps them maintain their interest and effort.

2.Blended learning: It is one of the e-learning modalities. It combines online training with face-to-face training through online platform. The blended learning model has been gaining ground in recent years and is one of the main ways that educational institutions at all levels have to adopt on [Margie, 2003]. Traditional teaching models are obsolete and currently the stakeholders expect education that involves more interaction and collaboration, in addition to the application of technology as a means of learning. This e-learning modality increases performance, since students are more likely to do well if academicians use different tools. In this way, they have several options to learn a new concept. Also, thanks to the segmentation and analysis that e-learning allows, it is more difficult for students to fail, because tutors can analyse in which field the student is performing less. Thanks to this type of monitoring, students can avoid losing interest in the course.

3. Flipped classroom: In a flipped classroom, the e-learning part takes place outside the educational centre. Students study the content individually at home through online software and use the time in the classroom to put it into practice. In this way, class time is more productive, since it is used to deepen the contents, clarify doubts and encourage team work.

Since students begin on a different basis, each of them may need a different time to acquire the same knowledge. In traditional teaching, all students have to follow the same rhythm in the classroom, but, in the inverted classroom, students can spend as much time as they require on each segment. Therefore, each student can rely on their progress to spend more or less time on each lesson and thus ensure that they have understood everything thoroughly.

Most of the companies and educational organisations are following this model in their classes. The flipped classroom offers great flexibility when it comes to forming groups, which is very convenient for schools. This type of model puts an end to corseted schedules and contributes to the permanence of students in their studies.

4. Mobile learning: Another modalities is mobile learning or m-learning. It consists of the use of mobile applications to access e-learning resources. The step learning experience model can be used through videos, still pictures, verbal and non-verbal materials in m-learning. The multi-device apps allow the students study where and when they decide. In this way, the rhythm adapts to the needs and possibilities of each student. Also, thanks to the possibility of pre-downloading the content, students can access the contents of the e-learning courses even without an internet connection. While a topic is being studied, numerous questions may arise. It is likely that students forget their questions if they do not solve them soon, which translates into a learning deficit. Mobile learning facilitates immediate communication between students and teachers, even live when online tutorials are established. Students feel more confident about being able to send a message at any time from the course itself and, therefore, they can clarify their doubts. The teacher can answer the questions directly or can gather the students’ questions to solve them in a group lesson, either virtual or face-to-face. In this way, students will be solving their doubts while learning from the approaches and difficulties of others, which is part of social learning.

Social Media in Today’s Education System

  • Social media such as WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter etc. has gained incredible popularity over the past few years as an open source of information and knowledge sharing platform. Educational institutions are more dependent on social media to interact with parents and their pupil. It can be observe that academicians are leveraging the potential of social media to improve the overall teaching-learning process.

  • The significant role of social media in teaching-learning process cannot be neglected. It not only provides students access to useful information but also connects them with learning groups and other educational system, that make their overall learning process more interesting and appealing.

  • Social platforms like Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram are being used by almost everyone. These social channels are all about collaborating, networking, sharing and generating knowledge and content, something which is of great value in the context of education.

  • Using Zoom app, telegram, webex meeting, google meet, free conference, google classroom to share information and interaction purpose.

  • Distance education or distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present in a classroom.

  • Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today, it involves online education.

  • A distance learning program can be completely distance learning, or a combination of distance learning and traditional classroom instruction (called hybrid or blended).

  • Massive open online courses (MOOCs), offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent educational modes in distance education. A number of other terms (distributed learning, e-learning, m-learning, online learning, virtual classroom etc.) are used roughly synonymously with distance education.

Conclusion: Education gives more skills and job opportunities to students. But present scenario teaching and learning process are going through online mode because of Covid-19. For teaching through online mode, step learning experiences model gives the brief description for teaching and learning aid for academicians. Traditional teaching is more effective than the online mode teaching because of face to face interactions, lively talking, active participation in activities/demonstrations. But in present situations the above-mentioned activities are not available and also portion cannot be achieved successfully, but where we are staying in that place, at any time we can learn through modern technologies to full fill the educational goals. On this context, 30% of the syllabus should get reduced and examination system should be changed.


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Dange, J. K. (2015). Learning and Experiences: A Step model. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 3(5), 101 – 108.

Dange, J. K., (2015). Learning and Experiences. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Dange, J. K., (2015, May 23). Learning and Experiences [Video]. YouTube.

Dange. J. K., & Usha R. G. (2020). Role of Technology in Teaching –Learning Process at Higher Education”, In. Future Dimensions in Higher Education: A Quantum Leap in Technology, Proceedings of International Conference Vol 1, (pp. 367 – 374).

Dange, J. K., & Usha R. G. (2020). e-Pedagogy Usage in Secondary School Curriculum, e-Pedagogy for the digital age, Two-day International online Seminar Monograph, 547-550.

Luthra. F., & Mackenzie, S. (2020). 4 ways COVID-19 could change how we educate future generations, Brazil. Retrieved from

Margie, M. (2003). The hybrid online model: Good practice. Educes Quarterly, 18–23.

Raj, R. (2009). Global Encyclopaedia of Educational Technology, Global Vision Publishing House, (1stEdn), Vol 1, (pp. 134 – 138).


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