Social policies for persons with disabilities: A case study in Karnataka



Mahesh KS

Research Scholar, Department of Sociology, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta,Karnataka-577451, Email: maheshks.dsoc@gmail.com. Mob: 9742627021.

Prof. M Gurulingaiah

Department of Sociology, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Karnataka – 577451, Email: gurulingaih_dsoc@rediffmail.com. Mob: 9481846276.


Abstract

Introduction: Both Central and State government have introduced welfare policies, programs and schemes. Through the help of welfare measures, provisions and social security schemes tried attempt to upliftment of marginal / weaker sections and to keep sustainability in society. Constitutional provisions of social security schemes are protect against marginalization of weaker sections in society. The researcher has used simple random sampling method for sampling selection for the survey to gather primary data and the secondary data. It was found in the study that the awareness level about the policies and programs meant for physically disabled are very low among the group.


Key Words: Physical disability, Social Policies, Social Security, Exclusion and Marginalization.



Introduction


Exclusion is a social process, in which individuals or group of people are systematically blocked from or denied full access to a variety of rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of a different groups, and which are fundamental to social integration and observance of human rights within that particular group. For example, housing, employment, healthcare, civic engagement, democratic participation, and due process. India has rich diversities for diverse segments in society as social, economic, physical and other disabilities in society. Diversities are key sound of marginalization and exclusion of the system. Social exclusion is a complex and multidimensional concept having economic, social, political, cultural ramifications (Guruswamy S, 2011; 2). Social exclusion can be ‘constitutively a part of capability deprivation as well as instrumentally a cause of diverse capability failure’ (Amartya Sen, 2000; 5). The process of social exclusion has made a marginalization; it is a social process, which is pushed to edge a person or group or community from the mainstream of society. The term ‘Marginalization’ practiced in 1960s from a sociological perspective (Gurulingaiah M, 2016; 7). Among some diversities physical disabilities is most significant in existing society.

Disability is a universal phenomenon and is a multidimensional aspect, because it may view into social, economical, political, religious, physical, psychological and other phases. Physical disability is a state of person or species (Mahesh K S. and Gurulingaiah M, 2021). It had historical background and exists since from origin of the species. The term ‘Disability’ derived from Latin prefix ’Dis’ meaning negation, separation, lack of / opposite and the Latin ‘habilitas’, meaning fitness, and ‘habere’, indicating to have or to be easily handled. The term ‘Disability’ indicates the lack of power or ability to do something (Tyagi Kumar Ashok, 2003; 3). It is too difficult to define the term ‘Disability’, but Merriam-Webster Dictionary has attempted to define as a physical, mental, cognitive, or developmental condition that impairs, interferes with, or limits a person’s ability to engage in certain tasks or actions or participate in typical daily activities and interactions’ (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ disability). Lack of ability to do something has to do indicate disability; the section has attempted too complex circumstances in routine activities. Hence the constitution of India coordinates with these vulnerable sections through the social welfare policies and schemes.



The concept of social security is very old one; it was coined for the first time when the United States Social Security Act. 1935 was enacted and adopted by New Zealand in the year 1938 (Gaur K D, 2012; 2). Social Security is a program of protection provided by society against the contingencies of modern life-sickness, unemployment, aged persons, dependency, industrial accidents against which the individual cannot be expected to protect all section (Friedlander Walter A, 1968; 5). International Labor Organization opinions i.e., Social Security services as provided the citizens with benefits designed to prevent and alleviate social disease, to support when unavailable to earn to restore them gainful activity (Shukla, U N, Tiwari Sanjay, 2012; 4).


Rationale of the Study

Physically disabled is a section among society. Census report of India has estimated that, 2.21% of the total population is categorized as socially excluded or marginalized. They are subjected to both physical and psychological stress at various spheres in the society. Hence, the focus of the study is to understand challenges faced by the community in terms of getting integrated into the mainstream of the society.


Objectives

  • ·To study the level of awareness programmes of physically disabled.

  • · To study the awareness regarding policies, programmes and welfare schemes of physically disabled.




Methodology

Researcher has collected the primary data by interviewing the respondents through prepared interview schedule with regard to the objectives and the secondary data can be collected through books, journals, census reports, websites and periodicals. The study can be conducted in Tumakuru district of Karnataka State. The district consists of eleven taluks and has a disabled population of 35,043 (DDW Office, Tumkuru, 2019).


Sample Selection: Researcher has selected only two taluks for the study viz., Sira (6206) which had the higher number of disabled population and Turuvekere (2810) which had the lowest disabled in the district. In the present study, the researcher has adopted simple random technique for sample selection and chosen 04% of sampling size.


Analysis and data analysis: The social security schemes in India cover the marginal and weaker sections for the upliftment of the society. Article 43 of the constitution involves the state’s responsibilities to provide social security to the citizens of this country (Sahu Abhijaat, 2012; 72). As per the article, both central and state governments have launched welfare schemes, provisions and programs for strengthening the socially vulnerable sections such as:


Central government schemes and programs:

  • ADIP Program.

  • National Award for Persons with disabilities.

  • Deen Dayal Rehabilitation scheme.

  • Vocational Rehabilitation scheme.

Incentives to private sector employers for providing employment to persons with disabilities.


Government of Karnataka schemes and programs:


  • Educational incentives for persons with disabilities.

  • Special teachers training program to teach disable students for educated eligible disables. The government has established 08 schools for visually impaired and hard of hearing or hearing impaired.

  • Reservations in government sector jobs (3% reservation for group ‘A&B’, 5% for group ‘C&D’ posts).

  • Establishment of the industrial training centre at Mysuru.

  • Establishment of the employment exchange offices at Bengaluru.

  • Establishment of the hostels for employed disabled persons in the state (only 02).

  • Launching the social security schemes such as Aadhara schemes, telephone booth, monthly maintenance allowance, issue of medical certificate, insurance schemes for mentally retarded people, bus pass, state awards and other facilities (https://www.dwdsc.kar.nic.in/schemes.asp).



Benefits Frequencies Percentage Concession of transportation347/36096.38 %Job reservation168/36046.66 %Inclusive education71/36019.72 %Education benefits210/36058.33 %Medical benefits227/36063.05 %Aid/Appliances287/36079.72 %Vocational training136/36037.77 %Tax benefits71/36019.72 %Loan for business122/36033.88 %Scholarship270/36075.00 %Pension341/36094.72 %Special employment exchange61/36016.94 % Any other168/36046.66 %


Benefits Frequencies Percentage Concession of transportation340/36094.44 %Job reservation83/36023.05 %Inclusive education26/36007.22 %Education benefits167/36046.38 %Medical benefits61/36016.94 %Aid/Appliances193/36053.61 %Vocational training96/36026.66 %Tax benefits03/36000.83 %Loan for business63/36017.05 %Scholarship219/36060.83 %Pension319/36088.61 %Special employment exchange09/36002.05 %Any other144/36040.00 %


The above table discusses on the need of education against policies. 26.11% (94) of the respondents expressed as very high need to make policies against disable people, 40% (144) opined has high need, 13.61% (49) expressed as neither high nor low, 10.83% (39) as low need, and 09.45% (34) felt as very low need to public education to make policies and avoid discrimination. Hence, majority of respondents expressed as there is high need to make policies and few were very low need.


The PWD Act enhanced in the year of 1995; was the first act that protects against disable people who were exploited. The act came into force on 07th February, 1996. The motto of the act was equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation of disable people. The act was first enhanced in the disabled history, to protect and gives rights for disable people. The mentioned act was not campaign for all hence the table has assessed awareness and requirement to beneficiaries.


Concluding remarks

Disability is a physical attribute which restrict the functions of the body and is not a disease. Sustainable development of the society requires inclusive policies incorporating all sections of the society. The goal of the Indian Constitution is to provide social security and to empower the marginalized and downtrodden sections of the society. A welfare society needs to address the problems of marginalized and weaker sections through its policies, schemes and programmes. This can be achieved through proper implement of welfare schemes as well publicity campaigns using various mass media and social media platforms to create awareness about the same in order to reach out to the physically disabled people scattered in different parts of the country. This study has clearly established the need for such awareness drives. The policy makers should take note of the same and take the initiatives to reach out to more number of people, who are in need of support and dignity in the society.


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References

Amartya Sen. (2000). “Social Exclusion: Concept, Application and Scrutiny”, Asian Development Bank, Philippines.

Friedlander Walter, A. (1968). “Introduction to Social Welfare”. Prentice Hall, New York.

Gaur, K. D. (2012). “Social Security in India : Issues, Dimensions and Overview” in “Social Security Schemes in India” (Edt. Shukla U N., Tiwari Sanjay), Omega Publications, New Delhi.

Gurulingaiah M. (2016). “Sociology of Marginalized Groups”. Deevith Prakashana, Tumakuru, Karnataka.

Guruswamy, S. (2011). “Social Exclusion and Inclusion”. APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi.

Mahesh, K.S. and Gurulingaiah, M. (2021). “International Journal of Research Publications and Reviews” Volume-2, Issue 3.

Sahu Abhijaat, (2012). “Social security for persons with disabilities” in “Social Security Schemes in India” (Edt. Shukla U N, Tiwari Sanjay), Omega Publications, New Delhi.

Shukla U N, Tiwari Sanjay. (2012). “Social Secirity Schemes in India” Omega Publications, New Delhi.

Tyagi Kumar Ashok, (2003). “Education for children with disabilities” Saloni Publishing House, New Delhi.

Census of India-2011.

www.socialexclusion.nic.in.

https://www.dwdsc.kar.nic.in/schemes.asp.