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Post Covid-19 India: Challenges and Opportunities for Formal Education

Vinayaka A, Research Scholar, Department of Social work, VSK University. Ballari-583 105, Karnataka. E-mail: akkasaliv@gmail.com


Kumara, Assistant Professor, Department of Social work, VSK University. Ballari-583 105, Karnataka. E-mail: kumarvsku@gmail.com


Abstract: We all know about the covid-19 situation in many stream and angles. Everybody fights with crucial and unbelievable situation of created by covid-19 overall world. India also effect on this pandemic, prominently education and health sector most struggle in their streams. Basically Indian education system based on students and teacher oriented systems. But effect of this pandemic student and teacher’s relationship and bonding of education was imbalanced. These things are very challenges to parents and teacher to fulfill student’s educational needs. Present study intended to explain the impact of covid-19 on education system in India. Main objective of this study is how covid-19 effect on regular education system in India. Bring out the advantages and disadvantages of the pandemic in all sector of the society mainly focus on the Education system. Present study adopts the Exploratory Research Design for detailed study about impact Post COVID-19 India: Challenges and Opportunities for Formal Education is the collection of information from using the secondary source for framework of study. Results of the study based on learning achievements of the students. Comparing online education with classroom education, changes in education system and effect on family students and teacher also. This study overall explain how covid-19 impact on education system in India.


Key words: Communication, Personality, Attitudes, Achievements, Technology effeteness.


Introduction

COVID-19 has affected a large number of students across states, class, caste, gender and region. The shutting down of schools and colleges the decision of shifting traditional classrooms to digital platforms, It is not only increasing learning inequality among students but also pushing a large number of students out of school and colleges due to the digital divide. Other than learning, the absence of schooling would also have a long-lasting effect on the health and Education of Students Since its outbreak in late December 2019, COVID-19 has caused disorder across the world and like any critical sector, education has been hit hard. Students, schools, colleges and universities have been deeply impacted. According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), over 800 million learners from around the world have been affected, 1 in 5 learners cannot attend school, 1 in 4 cannot attend higher education classes, and over 102 countries have ordered nationwide school and colleges closures while 11 have implemented localized school and colleges closure. Globally, over 200,000 cases of the corona virus have been reported in more than 160 countries, which have resulted in more than 8,000 deaths and left several States dealing with severe outbreaks. The COVID-19 pandemic will adversely impact the progress some governments were making around increasing the education budget. Therefore, this is a crisis that requires urgent attention and collective action by all Governments, stakeholders and communities.



Review of literature

The education sector has undergone major changes during this pandemic, including: Changes such as the shift from regular contact classes to his online platform, the teaching methods employed by teachers, the conduct of exams, and competitive exams. According to the UNESCO Education Division report, 1,190,287,189 learners were affected and 150 of her closures were made across the country (UNESCO, 2019). Studies have examined the impact of COVID-19 on the education and mental health of students and faculty (Cao et al., 2020, Sahu, 2020). COVID-19 poses several challenges to education. Protecting the education system is. Second, assessment and assessment systems using online platforms do not provide accuracy of student performance as originality of performance is not guaranteed (Ruder, 2019). Students can use another device to answer questions asked during the assessment. The third is a research platform that includes international travel, cancellations and postponements of conferences and seminars. Other research activities have adversely affected research (Hutton, Dudley, Horowitz-Kraus, DeWitt & Holland, 2020). However, many such events have migrated to online platforms due to the opportunity, increasing attendance and popularity of these events (Cao et al., 2020). A fourth concern is the mental health and careers of students severely impacted by this outbreak (Sahu, 2020).


Due to COVID-19, the entire teaching method has shifted from traditional mode to online mode. A variety of online platforms are available to learners and professionals. Students can work from home without wasting time, energy or money on the move. You are not tired and can invest more compared to pre-COVID conditions. Studying at home has also had great benefits for students with direct parental supervision. When it comes to theory classes, the online platform has given me great opportunities to excel. However, the practical tasks that students are expected to perform in the lab and in the field are very limited. This severely limits the teaching of teachers when they are unable to provide demonstrations to students due to lack of lab ware and other necessary practical materials. However, this has led to courses being completed on time despite the full lockdown, but the knowledge of students whose courses are more practice-oriented is incomplete. So the combination of these pros and cons has taken the world of education to another level.


There are several online platforms available for lectures, training courses, etc. to facilitate learning (Bambakidis &Tomei, 2020). However, without contact education, one-on-one conversations between teachers and students are adversely affected. The potential to fill this gap is also uncertain, as students are likely to be deprived of contact learning before proceeding to the next level. It leads to the next level of difficulty that students may soon face (Sintema, 2020). Additionally, the lack of a formal classroom environment tends to have a negative impact on student concentration. Where an online facility facilitates learning through flexi classes, there is no guarantee that students will attend classes on their own. Teachers and students can face a lot of confusion due to network issues. Students can get involved in mischievous activities such as creating fake email identities, making noise, and making unwanted comments. Teachers struggle to maintain discipline. However, this online mode is better suited for some areas than in-person classes, such as: B. Such as web design for better hands-on demonstrations through online presentations and screen-sharing options.


Lower socioeconomic students, on the other hand, do not have the opportunity to experience online learning. This leads to a huge and unfair social stratification that deprives learners of their legitimate entitlement to education. In developing countries like India, where the population is predominantly from rural areas, people are less tech-friendly. This is another challenge for the Indian education system despite the availability of technical facilities. This difficulty is faced by teachers, students, or both. Teachers who are more knowledgeable and accustomed to contact teaching cannot perform 100% in online lectures. A very beneficial and constructive aspect that has emerged during the lockdown is that many professionals have started offering free online courses, training programs, workshops, webinars, etc. Usually such programs have no time. Those with busy rosters who cannot spend their time are given the opportunity to improve themselves, while young professionals get a fair chance to express themselves with more confidence.


Online education has both strengths and weaknesses in terms of physiological and cognitive effects. A recent study at Harvard Medical School looked at how digital devices interfere with sleep and creativity. We know that our use of digital media plays a key role in creating neural connections for the growing human brain. However, using the screen beyond the recommended amount of time can impair brain development. This also leads to sleep disturbances due to insufficient release of the hormone melatonin. Another key concern is the availability of learning resources. Not all study materials are available in online mode. Some offline materials are usually available in libraries, but not in online databases. Students are deprived of this material. In addition, educational institutions that have decided to conduct online exams are struggling to create questionnaires. Surveys are mostly multiple-choice questions that don't give students a window to write descriptive answers that are as important as they learn. This will improve students' writing skills.


Effects of House Arrest on Children and Teachers

The COVID-19 crisis (more than 150 countries) has affected all levels of the education system from pre-primary to tertiary (Vahid, 2020), with schools closed in phases. I'm here. And then the university took place. A similar situation existed during past pandemics (Sotto, 2011). 'Online learning', 'homeschooling', 'virtual learning' or 'e-children's educational success is largely unhindered' (IAU, 2020).


At the higher education level, as digital learning has evolved from extra-curricular facilities to an important tool in teaching, nearly all universities have offered online courses and switched to virtual lectures, courses, and webinars (Strielkowski, 2020). The contingency of using digital technology during a crisis is not temporary, but it has helped students answer a whole new set of questions about what, how, where and when to learn. Rice field. With the help of technology, students and teachers can enter resource materials as well as be confined to textbooks in various formats and styles at their own pace and time, simply by going online. In addition to teachers, intelligent digital technology does more than just teach. Instead, we simultaneously observe and it monitors and adjusts accordingly to better meet learner needs accuracy, compared to traditional classroom learning (Kumar, 2020).


The switch to online education ensures minimum loss of studies suffered, and progress and attainment are also closely monitored via timely assessment and evaluations. Internal learning evaluation and assessments are considered to have high significance as it demonstrates the students’ learning needs and support for taking remedial actions (Pandit, 2020). However, having been shifted to online platforms and accessed remotely, a major concern that emerged was the availability of proper internet facility networks and technology, especially in lower socio-economic zones and strata. In many countries, via online portals, TV and radio channels were started and the concern was addressed by the respective governments (Gyamerah, 2020). Imparting of average grade points based on the course completion for students pursuing higher studies, deferring the exams till further notice, promotion to the next level using “predictive grade,” were announced by few higher education institutions and schools. As per Gonzalez et al. (2020), Black and William (2018).


The evaluation method and assessment would also change from traditional high stake to small project-based and activity, assignment-based evaluation shortly as the pandemic continues. At higher education institutes, there is a hold on the ongoing research projects and field works. A virtual internship is provided and various scientific research conferences and symposiums have been postponed and canceled (Viner et al., 2020). They have moved online, whereby these virtual conferences have adversely affected networking opportunities and informal communication, creating a wide gap, especially in case of the inequalities prevailed in accessing technology to educational resources and the absence of proper remedial measures (Gjoshi&Kume, 2014).


It is perceived that higher education can be relatively managed with digital learning or remote schooling (Srivastava, 2020). As such, most of the research carried out to study the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on education discusses the adverse effects in terms of learning and student well-being (Herold, 2017) due to home confinement and digital learning or homeschooling taking place with parental issues and concerns to provide childcare management and guidance required for their distance learning programs, availability of resources, and their socio-economic conditions (Hiremath, Kowshik, Manjunath, &Shettar, 2020).


Despite the ongoing conditions prevailing due to COVID-19, online learning has said to have long-term positive implications that can be expected in comparison to the earlier research studies that suggested that student well-being is affected by the quality of learning (Mahboob, 2020). A recent study sheds light on the significant positive impact of COVID-19 on learning efficiency and performances by adopting online learning strategies. To better understand the teaching and learning process during this crisis, it is imperative to have an education reform made to provide necessary teacher training, making further advancement of the new normal digital learning for functioning smoothly in the future as well (Stephens, Leevore, Coryell, & Pena, 2017). According to WHO, COVID-19 may never be gone. Instead, people have to learn to live with it. As such, by the policymakers, distance learning is embedded in normal education, so as to help students learn coping skills to deal effectively, minimizing negative impacts in case of crises encountered.


However, as a need of the hour, education shall increasingly embrace online/virtual classrooms, keeping in mind the exposure to students’ screen time in a day, planning of activities wherein parental involvement, assistance, and guidance are considered (India Today, 2020). More physical education, music, dance, home gardening along with art integration should be focused so as to enhance creativity, and affective domains that advertently shall enhance motivation, physical activities (Sprang & Silman, 2013) and in adolescence too, continuous sitting, eye strains (Levy & Ramim, 2017) and issues like cyber bullying, video game addictions and social media browsing can be put under control. Even for university students, through distance learning, they can collaborate with others; watch lectures prerecorded, and have fruitful discussions. The lecturer can be more of a facilitator rather than an instructor. Distance learning can be as effective as a traditional face-to-face mode of learning. Students have more family time; they can engage at their own pace (Simonson, Zvacek, & Smaldino, 2019).


Moreover, there are barriers to distance learning and are unique to every country. However, its use has worldwide benefits that can be counted on, especially educating, imparting training on various focused topics to general hobbies (Bell et al., 2017). For educators, having been faced with so many challenges to adjust and get accustomed to the distance learning platform, it is highly commendable to have done so effectively. Still, they find it convincing, and a feel-good factor also persists, as work from home has helped manage home, take care of one’s self and family as mostly the time is spent on daily commuting, travels to reach the workplace, endless department meetings, colloquia or ongoing discussions on one side, and on the contrary, the research evidence (Goodman, Joshi, Nasim, & Tyler, 2015) demonstrated that parents with a low socio-economic background faced difficulties in providing nutritional meals to their children due to school closures, and also the affordability of extra-school activities compared to more advantaged backgrounds. Minimize the challenges experienced due to home confinement and school closures, distance learning should be encouraged. Need for updating with modern technology should be introduced with high-speed internet, continuous power supply, cyber security, as well as proper training to educators and students so as to have skills and competencies to operate electronic devices, along with the necessary knowledge and understanding about the method in which the information is imparted.


Clearly, due to our recent experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, many conventional academic life principles have to be reshaped. However, a common goal is being shared by all the education systems, which is to overcome the learning crisis faced and deal effectively with the COVID-19 pandemic. While talking about the family environment, it has been observed that many faculties are reporting about online teaching difficulties. Especially in children’s cases, it is reported that the families are not cooperating to maintain the class’s decorum. The family members keep disturbing the child for one or the other reason, which promotes the child to continue with disturbing and inattentive behavior. The cognitive skills of the parents also have a significant role in understanding and growth of the child. If the academic and the other assignments are better understood by the parents, the children will have a constant source of support whenever needed without any delay or waiting time for the next interaction with the teacher. In this aspect, India is facing much difficulty because a large population is illiterate or less educated to compliment the contemporary educational demands of their children. Hence, the family has a central role in the learning of the child (Moon, Kim, & Moon, 2016).


Research Methodology

Need of the Study: Each day millions of children do not go to school due to emergencies and on-going humanitarian crises. The outbreak of COVID-19 has compounded the plight of learners in countries affected and or emerging from conflict and disaster. While the Global Campaign for Education (GCE) acknowledges the public health decision to close schools, we believe that contingency plans should be in place to ensure the right to education even in times of crisis. GCE is convinced that all learners no matter where they live and circumstances have a right to education. Education is an essential right for children, young and adults in emergencies and must be a priority from the very beginning of any and all emergency responses.

Objectives of the study:


1. To find out the effeteness of COVID-19 on Formal Education

2. To Know about the Educational Changes in Pandemic Situations

3. To Analyze the Challenges of Parents and Students in the Education

4. To ascertain the Impact of Online education on Students on their formal Education



Design of the Study: Exploratory Research Design was used in this study.

Sources of the Data: Secondary Sources were used in this study. The findings and suggestions were given on Review of the literature basis.


Research Findings

· Effect of COVID 19 Education system was rapidly changed their Process and Students and Parents are facing more Challenges in the Duration, Childcare is often difficult to find or unaffordable, due to its increased demand and closures of daycare centers and schools during the pandemic, creating uncomfortable environment to formal education

· The long-term impact of crisis is uncertain; the pandemic may affect public spending on education as funds are diverted into the health sector and the economy.

· Students faced many problems regarding their educational Achievements and personality development. Most of the time online education makes Confusions to learners and Teachers because of Network issues and teaching methods.

· Many working mothers dropped out of the labor force to take care of their children during school closures and online learning. In places where part-time school attendance or fully virtual learning is implemented, working parents are typically left with a choice of either arranging childcare or to stop working during days when their children are not at school.

· This pandemic has revealed some of the major loopholes in the Indian education system. The closure of schools has made a severe impact on marginalized students. One of the critical trends that can be followed is the need to have a combined approach to online learning with increase in investment on the upgrading of the technology infrastructure of educational institutions

· Many parents are worried about their child’s health as it is unhealthy to sit for hours in front of a computer screen. Looking at the screen for too long can also damage their eyesight. Not only that, back problems due to incorrect sitting positions may arise

· Covid-19 has forced the human society to maintain the social distancing.it has created more challenged to continue the formal teaching and learning system in schools and colleges.

· Impact of COVID-19 several students who study through digital mode cannot acquire socializing skills. It may lead to a decrease in the cooperative skills of a student. It’s totally impact brought significant disruptions to formal education across in India.

· All higher education institutes now are aware of the importance of technology and should take serious measures to conduct technology-driven education through the learning management system. It is recommended that educational institutions should use technology in all aspects. This pandemic shows the partnership between technology and education is going to stay forever.


Conclusion

The closing of schools, colleges, and universities disrupts both internal and external examinations for qualifications as well as the learning of students. The online teaching approach has taken the place of the conventional teaching method. On the one hand, online learning gives pupils the chance to learn, but on the other, the innovative teaching approach comes with a number of problems. Education institutions are working to make up for the lost learning while looking for solutions to the problems brought on by the lockdown. Schools require resources in order to make up for the learning loss when they reopen. The schools must find answers to a number of issues, including how to focus the students and use the available resources. Another viewpoint the interruptions caused by the COVID-19 epidemic have provided a chance to reform the optometry educational system. The fast shifts to online learning made it easier to maintain continuity in optometry education program, which served the goal of finishing the current academic year. The transition from the education system's "tea steeping" approach to one based on competencies has already begun. Internet-based learning and the use of technology in optometry education are expected to become the new norm. If educators and technical personnel exhibit an adaptable and collaborative mindset, the change can be rapid and easy. However, it is still too early to draw any conclusions about the success of the shift because it has yet to be determined how well the students performed and what kind of professionals they produced. To measure student performance and satisfaction after transitioning to the e-learning educational system, additional research may be conducted.






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